A range of rice which contains natural chemicals that give it a flavour and aroma similar to that of roasted nuts or popcorn. Can be rice of any size. Basmati and Jasmine rice are two of the most prominent examples of aromatic rice.
The small milled fragments of rice kernels that have been separated from the larger kernels of milled rice. It was formerly used almost exclusively in brewing but is now used in other fermented products and in pet food.
A rice grain that has had its husk removed. It is more nutritious than white rice because it still contains the bran layer and germ. Also known as husked or hulled rice, partly-milled rice, cargo rice, or loonzain rice.
Refers to the colour of the rice kernel. Chalky rice has a more opaque white colour than normal white rice. Kernels that have high levels of chalkiness tend to break more easily during the milling process and are unpopular with consumers due to poor taste and appearance. Rice tends to be chalkier when it matures during very hot weather.
A nutritionally superior method of preparing brown rice. Washed brown rice is soaked for 20 hours in warm water prior to cooking. Soaking stimulates germination, which activates enzymes in the rice and delivers a more complete amino acid profile.
Rice that has been genetically modified to possess certain beneficial characteristics such as increased grain size, nutritional profile, rate of growth and resistance to pests, herbicides and flooding.
Rice originating in Japan that undergoes a special milling process that preserves the nutritious germ. It is easier to digest than brown rice and is just as flavourful as white rice and is therefore a good compromise between the two.
Rice produced by cross-breeding two different types of rice. Typically displays heterosis (enhanced characteristics) so that when it is grown under the same conditions as other varieties it can produce up to 30% increase in field yields.
Rice which has had its husk, bran layer, and germ removed. This process turns rice a white/yellow colour and makes it softer when cooked. It is sometimes polished or oiled. the term is used interchangeably with white rice.
Rice which has gone through the parboiling process where paddy rice is soaked, pressure-steamed and dried whilst still in the hull. During the process, the kernel’s moisture level is kept below 40% which drives nutrients from the bran into the grain and therefore gives the rice a high nutritional value.
Rice that comes from the Japonica variety with a grain length of less than 5.2mm and a length-width ratio of less than 2mm. The grain has a greater capacity for absorbing aromas and flavours than the Indica variety and its texture once cooked is soft, smooth and moist. Also known as short grain rice.
Often abbreviated ‘STX’, it refers to rice that has been passed through a sortexing machine, which analyses the colour of the rice grains and discards any off-colour pieces. The resulting rice is cleaner and has a more consistent colour.
Short grain white rice that has been treated with the juice of young bamboo plants during milling. As a consequence, this rice is high in vitamin B and has a distinct flavour and aroma, similar to that of green tea. When cooked, it is pale green and tends to be quite moist, causing the grains to stick together.
A long grain variety that is aromatic and slender. When cooked it only swells lengthwise, resulting in long slim grains which are very dry and light. It is grown in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It is popular internationally for its length, nutty flavour and distinctive aroma and tends to be an expensive variety.
This chewy short grain rice is grown 2,400 metres up in the Himalayan Mountains. Its crops grown using water from a 1,000-year-old glacier which provides a nutty/earthy flavour. It has only its hull removed in processing, retaining its bran and germ and is rich in nutrients. Very little is grown and what is produced mostly stays in Bhutan and is therefore not widely available for export.
A range of rice which incorporates both glutinous and non-glutinous varieties and which is left semi-milled to keep its black-coloured bran. It is only grown in small amounts but is increasingly popular especially in the US and European markets thanks to its high nutritional value. Also known as Forbidden rice.
This aromatic variety is barely milled to retain its dark bran layers. It takes around 45 minutes to cook the grains, which are chewy and have a slight sweet spiciness. It was developed by the California-based Lundberg Family Farms and is a combination of Asian black short grain rice and a medium grain mahogany rice grown together in the same field.
This non-fragrant long grain rice absorbs more water after cooking than Jasmine rice whilst retaining almost the same level of tenderness and taste. It is considered to be a premium rice and is especially popular with restaurants and hotels. It is grown in the wet season (April to November) and is harvested once a year.
A medium grain variety grown in Italy. The grains, once cooked, are al dente (tender on the outside but firm within) and have a creamy texture. It is premium grade superfino rice with a high starch content. It is one of the most prized Italian rice varieties for its white kernel, uniform starch release and firmness.
a long grain variety of fragrant rice grown primarily in the north-east of Thailand with an aroma similar to that of the padanus plant. In early 2013, the E.U. awarded Hom Mali rice protected Geographical Indication status, preventing rice varieties from outside of the Thung Kula Ronghai region on north-east Thailand from using its name.
A semi-dwarf variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) as a better-milling version of IR 8 with a lower amylose content. It matures within 105 days and has enabled many regions to move to cultivating two crops a year.
Originally from Java, Indonesia, it is a medium grain rice known for its low-tilling and tall plant. Initially, it was defined at a separate variety to Japonica although it is now classed as part of the genus.
Also known as Patna rice after the city in India around which it is predominantly grown, this rice variety is closely related to Basmati but has a more subtle aroma. It is long grained, fluffy and does not stick together. It is considered premium grade rice.
A long grain, non-basmati variety grown in India. It is often used as a Basmati alternative and is popular for its price, nutritional content and quality when cooked. Grain sizes range from 6.5mm to 6.95mm.
A long grain fragrant rice derived from Pusa Basmati 1 and Haryana Basmati 1, developed in India to provide competition to Thai Jasmine rice. It is a premium grade rice with similar qualities to Pusa Basmati, although it matures quicker, has a stronger aroma and less chalkiness in the grain. It can be distinguished by its distinct white colour and is typically 7.6 – 7.8mm in grain length.
A US brand of aromatic rice typically grown in Texas. Combines the characteristics of Indian Basmati and American long grain rice resulting in rice with a popcorn-like aroma and a distinctive nutty taste.
A serious threat to rice production. It competes with cultivated rice but has a much lower yield as it matures early and its grain shatters very easily. Considered a weed, if it is found in harvested crop, the crop’s market value will be lower. Once paddy fields are infected it is very difficult to remove as there is no known herbicide that will both kill the weedy rice and not harm the cultivated rice.
A dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins. Different variants are used for either desserts or dinners. When used as a dessert it is commonly combined with a sweetener.
A class of Italian rice dishes cooked in a meat, fish or vegetable based broth that has a creamy texture. It is made using a medium, short or round grain white rice, e.g. Arborio, Baldo, Carnaroli, Maratelli, Roma and Vialone Nano.
The idea of breeding crops to increase their nutritional value. This can be done either through conventional selective breeding or through genetic engineering. It focuses on making plant foods more nutritious as plants are growing. It is seen as an upcoming strategy for dealing with deficiencies in micronutrients in the developing world.
Caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae it can affect all above ground parts of the rice plant. It occurs in areas with low soil moisture, frequent and prolonged periods of rain showers and cool temperatures in the daytime. An infection can kill seedlings or plants up to the tillering stage and later in can reduce the leaf area for grain fill reducing field yield.
Occurs when land which is not usually submerged receives an overflowing of water. Rice will die when completely submerged for more than 3 days, so flooding can cause a complete crop loss. However, in years following floods, harvests tend to produce bumper crops as land fertility increases.
The process of gathering matured crops from the field. To harvest paddy, a farmer will cut down the stem (also known as reaping), separate the grain from the stem (threshing), clean the paddy (winnowing) and take it to a mill for further processing. Harvesting of rice is done in a variety of ways around the world, from using a traditional sickle or knife to the use of high-tech combine harvesters.
The systematic application of water to land in order to grow crops. Rice is a semi-aquatic crop which requires flooded conditions. Insufficient water can lead to water stress on rice which limits both field yields and milling yields.
The process of removing the husk and bran layers, leaving just the white rice kernel. Most varieties of rice grains are composed of roughly 20% husk and 11% bran, leaving 69% of starchy endosperm after the milling process. Traditionally, milling was done by hand, but modern mills use state of the art machines to process more than 10 MTS of paddy per hour.
Rice that is grown and harvested in the current season and will always be labelled as such. It has not dried out as much as older rice and therefore has a more delicate flavour and requires less water for cooking.
The process of placing seed into the earth. This is often done in nursery beds, before the seed is subsequently transplanted to the paddy field. Sometimes, such as in the US, seeding is performed by specialist aeroplanes.
A structure (usually a tall tower or pit made from metal or concrete) used for the bulk storage of rice. It can range in capacity from 20 MTS to 2,000 MTS and are often used by large mills. It is easier to seal for fumigation compared to more traditional forms of storage and can be air-conditioned.
The process of transferring a rice seedling from a nursery into a paddy field, usually between 15 and 30 days after planting. This is done to give the crop a head start over weeds and allows for intensive farming as the rice is in the field for less time. Although machines can do this, in many parts of the world transplanting is still done by hand which takes an estimated 30 days per hectare per person.
Only around 4% of total rice grown in the world uses this method of production. Grown in altitudes of up to 2,000 meters it is known for having poor yields due to the constraints of growing at altitude, generally poor soil and relying on rainfall.
The incoterm used when transportation and insurance costs are covered by the seller up to the destination port, but the risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods have been loaded onto a carrier, such as a truck.
The incoterm used when the seller covers the transportation costs up to the destination port, including the cost of loading at the departure port. The seller does not cover the insurance costs once the goods have completed loading onto the ship. Formerly known as CNF.
If an exporter has agreed to ship a volume of rice at a specific point in the future, but does not currently own that rice, they do not have the shipment ‘covered’. They will need to purchase rice from the market in order to cover their shipment.
At the Uruguay round of WTO talks in 1995, South Korea, Japan and the Philippines were required to implement a set volume of imports which could be imported at a lower Tariff Rate Quota. MAVs are also known as ‘in-quota tariffs’. Any volumes of rice imported beyond the MAV are taxed at a much higher rate known as ‘out-quota tariffs’.
A form of status that gives a country a privileged position in bilateral trade with the country that had conferred the status upon them. This would usually mean lowered tariffs and import restrictions. It is usually, but not always, reciprocal.
An agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. It is a source of knowledge and information and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernise and improve agriculture practices.
All parties to the Grains Trade Convention (GTC). It holds two regular sessions a year. It oversees the implementation of the GTC, discusses current and prospective world grain market developments and monitors changes to national grain policies. Its definition of grains extended to rice with effect from 1 July 2009.