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The U.S. can be considered as two distinct markets: the South is a major producer of long grain rice and supplies much of the U.S. market as well as the Caribbean and Central America, while California is among the world’s leading exporters of Japonica rice with Calrose regarded as leading Japonica variety. Both have one harvest per year around September / October and total average annual production reaches between 6 to 7 million MTS milled. Californian production was dramatically curtailed since a record-breaking drought emerged, which led to sharp price increases in 2013 and an erosion of exports to traditional markets in the Mediterranean. El Niño helped to fill reservoirs and production improved in 2016. Long grain planting in the South increased substantially in the 2016 harvest leading to high stocks and low prices amid slow offshore demand.