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Vietnam regularly produces a surplus of around 6 million MTS, putting it in the top-three of global rice exporters. The country’s export sector relies heavily on demand from its large northern neighbour, China, which accounts for more than 35% of all Vietnamese rice exports, some of which crosses the border unofficially. Vietnam produces three harvests (Winter/Spring, Summer/Autumn and the Tenth Month crop) a year although the third, tenth-month crop is often of low quality. Vietnam’s rice exports were very subdued throughout 2016 as demand from Africa was low and exporters lost market share in China and the Philippines to Thailand. Production of the second, Summer/Autumn crop was adversely affected by drought and heat which led to high levels of chalkiness. Vietnam is also a leading exporter of fragrant rice, with Vietnamese Fragrant and KDM rice often exported to West African markets such as Ghana.